Psychophysics Toolbox
Citations
By David Brainard and Denis Pelli

According to the ISI Web of Science, as of August 18, 2004, the following 404 papers cite one or more of our three papers on this software (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997; Pelli and Zhang, 1991). Thanks!

  1. Achtman, RL, Hess, RF, Wang, YZ (2000) Regional sensitivity for shape discrimination. Spatial Vision 13 (4): 377-391.
  2. Ahumada AJ, Beard BL (1997) Image discrimination models predict detection in fixed but not random noise. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 14 (9), 2471-2476.
  3. Akutsu H, Bedell HE, Patel SS (2000) Recognition thresholds for letters with simulated dioptric blur. Optometry and Vision Science 77 (10), 524-530.
  4. Akutsu H, Levi DM (1998) Selective attention to specific location cues: the peak and center of a patch are equally accessible as location cues. Perception 27 (9), 1015-1023.
  5. Akutsu H, McGraw PV, Levi DM (1999) Alignment of separated patches: multiple location tags. Vision Research 39 (4), 789-801.
  6. Alexander KR, Derlack DJ, Fishman GA (1995) Visual-Acuity Vs Letter Contrast Sensitivity in Retinitis- Pigmentosa. Vision Research, 35 (10), 1495-1499.
  7. Alexander KR, Derlack, DJ, Fishman GA (1999) Coherence and the judgment of spatial displacements in retinitis pigmentosa. Vision Research 39 (13), 2267-2274.
  8. Alexander KR, Derlacki DJ, Xie W, Fishman GA, Szlyk JP (1998) Discrimination of spatial displacements by patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Vision Research 38 (8), 1171-1181.
  9. Alexander KR, Xie W, Derlacki DJ (1993) The Effect of Contrast Polarity on Letter Identification. Vision Research 33 (17), 2491-2497.
  10. Alexander KR, Xie W, Derlacki DJ (1994) Spatial-Frequency Characteristics of Letter Identification. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 11 (9), 2375-2382.
  11. Alfonso-Reese LA (2001) Technique for estimating perceptual noise in categorization tasks. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers 33 (4): 489-495.
  12. Allen HA, Hess RF, Mansouri B, Dakin SC (2003) Integration of first- and second-order orientation. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 20 (6): 974-986.
  13. Allen HA, Ledgeway T (2003) Attentional modulation of threshold sensitivity to first-order motion and second-order motion patterns. Vision Research 43 (27): 2927-2936.
  14. Anderson JS, Lampl I, Gillespie DC, Ferster D (2000) The contribution of noise to contrast invariance of orientation tuning in cat visual cortex. Science 290 (5498): 1968-1972.
  15. Anderson JS, Lampl I, Gillespie DC, Ferster D (2001) Membrane potential and conductance changes underlying length tuning of cells in cat primary visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 21 (6): 2104-2112.
  16. Arai K, McPeek RM, Keller EL (2004) Properties of saccadic responses in monkey when multiple competing visual stimuli are present. Journal of Neurophysiology, 91 (2): 890-900.
  17. Artal P, Marcos S, Iglesias I, Green DG (1996) Optical modulation transfer and contrast sensitivity with decentered small pupils in the human eye. Vision Research 36 (22), 3575-3586.
  18. Ashby FG, Ell SW, Waldron EM (2003) Procedural learning in perceptual categorization. Memory & Cognition 31 (7): 1114-1125.
  19. Ashby FG, Maddox WT, Bohil CJ (2002) Observational versus feedback training in rule-based and information-integration category learning. Memory & Cognition 30 (5): 666-677.
  20. Ashby FG, Noble S, Filoteo J, Waldron EM, Ell SW (2003) Category learning deficits in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychology 17 (1): 115-124.
  21. Avons SE (1998) Serial report and item recognition of novel visual patterns. British Journal of Psychology 89, 285-308.
  22. Bach M (1997) Anti-aliasing and dithering in the 'Freiburg Visual Acuity Test'. Spatial Vision, 11 (1), 85-89.
  23. Bach M (1997) A note on luminance calibration of raster-scan cathode-ray tubes: Temporal resolution, ripple, and accuracy. Spatial Vision 10 (4), 485-489.
  24. Bach M, Holder GE (1996) Check size tuning of the pattern electroretingoram: A reappraisal. Documenta Ophthalmologica 92 (3), 193-202.
  25. Bach M, Meigen T, Strasburger H (1997) Raster-scan cathode-ray tubes for vision research - Limits of resolution in space, time and intensity, and some solutions. Spatial Vision 10 (4), 403-414.
  26. Bach M, Ullrich D (1994) Motion Adaptation Governs the Shape of Motion-Evoked Cortical Potentials. Vision Research 34 (12), 1541-1547.
  27. Bach M, Ullrich D (1997) Contrast dependency of motion-onset and pattern-reversal VEPs: Interaction of stimulus type, recording site and response component. Vision Research 37 (13), 1845-1849.
  28. Bacon BA, Mamassian P (2002) Amodal completion and the perception of depth without binocular correspondence. Perception 31 (9): 1037-1045.
  29. Baker CL (2001) Linear filtering and nonlinear interactions in direction- selective visual cortex neurons: A noise correlation analysis. Visual Neuroscience 18 (3), 465-485.
  30. Baker CL, Boulton JC, Mullen KT (1998) A nonlinear chromatic motion mechanism. Vision Research 38 (2), 291-302.
  31. Baker CL, Hess RF (1998) Two mechanisms underlie processing of stochastic motion stimuli. Vision Research 38 (9), 1211-1222.
  32. Baker GE, Thompson ID, Krug K, Smyth D, Tolhurst DJ (1998) Spatial-frequency tuning and geniculocortical projections in the visual cortex (areas 17 and 18) of the pigmented ferret. European Journal of Neuroscience 10 (8), 2657-2668.
  33. Barrett BT, Cox MJ, Simmers AJ, Gray LS (1997) Grating detection and orientation discrimination in amblyopia. Current Eye Research 16 (10), 1044-1049.
  34. Barrett BT, Morrill P, Whitaker D (2000) Compound grating discrimination in extrafoveal and amblyopic vision. Experimental Brain Research 131 (2), 225-235.
  35. Barrett BT, Whitaker D, McGraw PV, Herbert AM (1999) Discriminating mirror symmetry in foveal and extra-foveal vision. Vision Research 39 (22), 3737-3744.
  36. Bavelier D, Schneider KA, Monacelli A (2002) Reflexive gaze orienting induces the line-motion illusion. Vision Research 42 (26): 2817-2827.
  37. Beauchamp MS, Lee KE, Argall BD, Martin A (2004) Integration of auditory and visual information about objects in superior temporal sulcus. Neuron 41 (5): 809-823.
  38. Beauchamp MS, Lee KE, Haxby JV, Martin A (2002) Parallel visual motion processing streams for manipulable objects and human movements. Neuron 34 (1): 149-159.
  39. Beauchamp MS, Lee KE, Haxby JV, Martin A (2003) fMRI responses to video and point-light displays of moving humans and manipulable objects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15 (7): 991-1001.
  40. Behrmann M, Kimchi R (2003) What does visual agnosia tell us about perceptual organization and its relationship to object perception? Journal of Experimental Psychology-human Perception and Performance 29 (1): 19-42.
  41. Berntson A, Taylor WR (2000) Response characteristics and receptive field widths of on- bipolar cells in the mouse retina. Journal of Physiology-London, 524 (3), 879-889.
  42. Bertamini M (2001) The importance of being convex: An advantage for convexity when judging position. Perception 30 (11): 1295-1310.
  43. Bertamini M, Croucher CJ (2003) The shape of holes. Cognition 87 (1): 33-54.
  44. Bertamini M, Mosca F (2004) Early computation of contour curvature and part structure: Evidence from holes. Perception 33 (1): 35-48.
  45. Bex PJ (1999) Apparent speed and speed sensitivity during adaptation to motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 16 (12), 2817-2824.
  46. Bex PJ, Baker CL (1997) The effects of distractor elements on direction discrimination in random Gabor kinematograms. Vision Research 37 (13), 1761-1767.
  47. Bex PJ, Baker CL (1999) Motion perception over long interstimulus intervals. Perception & Psychophysics 61 (6), 1066-1074.
  48. Bex PJ, Dakin SC (2002) Comparison of the spatial-frequency selectivity of local and global motion detectors. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 19 (4), 670-677.
  49. Bex PJ, Dakin SC (2002) Comparison of the spatial-frequency selectivity of local and global motion detectors. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 19 (4): 670-677.
  50. Bex PJ, Dakin SC (2003) Motion detection and the coincidence of structure at high and low spatial frequencies. Vision Research 43 (4): 371-383.
  51. Bex PJ, Dakin SC, Simmers AJ (2003) The shape and size of crowding for moving targets. Vision Research 43 (27): 2895-2904.
  52. Bex PJ, Makous W (2002) Spatial frequency, phase, and the contrast of natural images. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 19 (6), 1096-1106.
  53. Bex PJ, Simmers AJ, Dakin SC (2003) Grouping local directional signals into moving contours. Vision Research 43 (20): 2141-2153.
  54. Bex PJ, Simmers AJ, Dakin SC (2001) Snakes and ladders: the role of temporal modulation in visual contour integration. Vision Research 41 (27), 3775-3782.
  55. Bijl F, Valeton JM (1999) Bias-free procedure for the measurement of the minimum resolvable temperature difference and minimum resolvable contrast. Optical Engineering 38 (10), 1735-1742.
  56. Bijl P, Valeton JM (1998) Triangle orientation discrimination: the alternative to minimum resolvable temperature difference and minimum resolvable contrast. Optical Engineering 37 (7), 1976-1983.
  57. Bindman D, Chubb C (2004) Brightness assimilation in bullseye displays. Vision Research 44 (3): 309-319.
  58. Bindman D, Chubb C (2004) Mechanisms of contrast induction in heterogeneous displays. Vision Research 44 (13): 1601-1613.
  59. Bonnar L, Gosselin F, Schyns PG (2002) Understanding Dali's Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire: A case study in the scale information driving perception. Perception 31 (6): 683-691.
  60. Boynton GM, Finney EM (2003) Orientation-specific adaptation in human visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 23 (25): 8781-8787.
  61. Brainard DH (1997) The psychophysics toolbox. Spatial Vision 10 (4), 433-436.
  62. Brainard DH, Calderone JB, Nugent AK, Jacobs GH (1999) Flicker ERG responses to stimuli parametrically modulated in color space. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 40 (12), 2840-2847.
  63. Braje WL, Tjan BS, Legge GE (1995) Human-Efficiency for Recognizing and Detecting Low-Pass Filtered Objects. Vision Research 35 (21), 2955-2966.
  64. Bravo MJ, Farid H (2000) The effect of 3D structure on motion segmentation. Vision Research 40 (6), 695-704.
  65. Bravo MJ, Farid H (2004) Recognizing and segmenting objects in clutter. Vision Research 44 (4): 385-396.
  66. Brenner E, Cornelissen FW (1998) When is a background equivalent? Sparse chromatic context revisited. Vision Research 38 (12), 1789-1793.
  67. Busey TA (1998) Temporal inhibition in character identification. Perception & Psychophysics 60 (8), 1285-1304.
  68. Busey TA (1999) Localization and identification tasks rely on different temporal frequencies. Vision Research 39 (3), 513-532.
  69. Busey TA, Tunnicliff J, Loftus GR, Loftus EF (2000) Accounts of the confidence-accuracy relation in recognition memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 7 (1), 26-48.
  70. Calver RI, Cox MJ, Elliott DB (1999) Effect of aging on the monochromatic aberrations of the human eye. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 16 (9), 2069-2078.
  71. Candy TR, Banks MS (1999) Use of an early nonlinearity to measure optical and receptor resolution in the human infant. Vision Research 39 (20), 3386-3398.
  72. Candy TR, Skoczenski AM, Norcia AM (2001) Normalization models applied to orientation masking in the human infant. Journal of Neuroscience 21 (12), 4530-4541.
  73. Carrasco M, Giordano AM, McElree B (2004) Temporal performance fields: visual and attentional factors. Vision Research 44 (12): 1351-1365.
  74. Carrasco M, Ling S, Read S (2004) Attention alters appearance. Nature Neuroscience 7 (3): 308-313.
  75. Carrasco M, Penpeci-Talgar C, Eckstein M (2000) Spatial covert attention increases contrast sensitivity across the CSF: support for signal enhancement. Vision Research 40 (10-12): 1203-1215.
  76. Carrasco M, Talgar CP, Cameron EL (2001) Characterizing visual performance fields: effects of transient covert attention, spatial frequency, eccentricity, task and set size. Spatial Vision 15 (1): 61-75.
  77. Carter RM, Hofstotter C, Tsuchiya N, Koch C (2003) Working memory and fear conditioning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (3): 1399-1404.
  78. Chandler DM, Hemami SS (2003) Effects of natural images on the detectability of simple and compound wavelet subband quantization distortions. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 20 (7): 1164-1180.
  79. Chen CC, Foley JM, Brainard DH (2000) Detection of chromoluminance patterns on chromoluminance pedestals I: threshold measurements. Vision Research 40 (7): 773-788.
  80. Chen CC, Tyler CW (1999) Spatial pattern summation is phase-insensitive in the fovea but not in the periphery. Spatial Vision 12 (3), 267-285.
  81. Chen CC, Tyler CW (2001) Lateral sensitivity modulation explains the flanker effect in contrast discrimination. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 268 (1466): 509-516.
  82. Chen Y, Palafox GP, Nakayama K, Levy DL, Matthysse S, Holzman PS (1999) Motion perception in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56 (2), 149-154.
  83. Chua FK, Goh J, Hon N (2001) Nature of codes extracted during the attentional blink. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance 27 (5), 1229-1242.
  84. Chua KP, Chun MM (2003) Implicit scene learning is viewpoint dependent. Perception & Psychophysics 65 (1): 72-80.
  85. Coeckelbergh TRM, Cornelissen FW, Brouwer WH, Kooijman AC (2004) Age-related changes in the functional visual field: Further evidence for an inverse Age x Eccentricity effect. Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 59 (1): P11-P18.
  86. Collin CA, Chaudhuri A (2002) Using MATIAB with the Psychophysics Toolbox to present the heterochromatic fusion nystagmus stimulus. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers 34 (4): 500-508.
  87. Colombo E, Derrington A (2001) Visual calibration of CRT monitors. Displays 22 (3), 87-95.
  88. Cornelissen FW, Brenner E (1995) Simultaneous Color Constancy Revisited - an Analysis of Viewing Strategies. Vision Research 35 (17), 2431-2448.
  89. Cornelissen FW, Pelli DG, Farell B, Huckins SC, Szeverenyi N (1997) A binocular fiberscope for presenting visual stimuli during fMRI. Spatial Vision 11 (1), 75-81.
  90. Cornelissen FW, Peters EM, Palmer J (2002) The Eyelink Toolbox: Eye tracking with MATLAB and the psychophysics toolbox. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers 34 (4): 613-617.
  91. Cox MJ (1997) Making things move - the options for computer-based displays. Spatial Vision 11 (1), 3-17.
  92. Cox MJ, Derrington AM (1994). The Analysis of Motion of 2-Dimensional Patterns - Do Fourier Components Provide the 1st-Stage. Vision Research 34 (1), 59-72.
  93. Cox, M.J., Norman, J.H., & Norman, P. (1999). The effect of surround luminance on measurements of contrast sensitivity. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 19 (5), 401-414.
  94. Dakin SC, Mareschal I (2000) The role of relative motion computation in 'direction repulsion'. Vision Research 40 (7), 833-841.
  95. Dakin SC (2001) Information limit on the spatial integration of local orientation signals. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 18 (5): 1016-1026.
  96. Dakin SC, Bex PJ (2002) Role of synchrony in contour binding: some transient doubts sustained. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 19 (4): 678-686.
  97. Dakin SC, Bex PJ (2002) Summation of concentric orientation structure: seeing the Glass or the window? Vision Research 42 (16): 2013-2020.
  98. Dakin SC, Bex PJ (2003) Natural image statistics mediate brightness 'filling in'. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London series B-Biological Sciences 270 (1531): 2341-2348.
  99. Dakin SC, Herbert AM (1998) The spatial region of integration for visual symmetry detection. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 265 (1397), 659-664.
  100. Dakin SC, Hess RF (1998) Spatial-frequency tuning of visual contour integration. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 15 (6), 1486-1499.
  101. Dakin SC, Hess RF (1999) Contour integration and scale combination processes in visual edge detection. Spatial Vision 12 (3), 309-327.
  102. Dakin SC, Mareschal I (2000) The role of relative motion computation in 'direction repulsion'. Vision Research 40 (7), 833-841.
  103. Dakin SC, Mareschal I (2000) Sensitivity to contrast modulation depends on carrier spatial frequency and orientation. Vision Research 40 (3): 311-329.
  104. Dakin SC, Williams CB, Hess RF (1999) The interaction of first- and second-order cues to orientation. Vision Research 39 (17), 2867-2884.
  105. DeAngelis GC, Robson JG, Ohzawa I, Freeman RD (1992) Organization of Suppression in Receptive-Fields of Neurons in Cat Visual-Cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 68 (1), 144-163.
  106. Demanins R, Hess RF, Williams CB, Keeble DRT (1999) The orientation discrimination deficit in strabismic amblyopia depends upon stimulus bandwidth. Vision Research 39 (24), 4018-4031.
  107. Demanins R, Wang YZ, Hess RF (1999) The neural deficit in strabismic amblyopia: sampling considerations. Vision Research 39 (21), 3575-3585.
  108. Demb JB, Haarsma L, Freed MA, Sterling P (1999) Functional circuitry of the retinal ganglion cell's nonlinear receptive field. Journal of Neuroscience 19 (22), 9756-9767.
  109. Demb JB, Zaghloul K, Haarsma L, Sterling P (2001) Bipolar cells contribute to nonlinear spatial summation in the brisk-transient (Y) ganglion cell in mammalian retina. Journal of Neuroscience 21 (19): 7447-7454.
  110. Demb JB, Zaghloul K, Sterling P (2001) Cellular basis for the response to second-order motion cues in Y retinal ganglion cells. Neuron 32 (4): 711-721.
  111. Derrington A, Cox M (1998) Temporal resolution of dichoptic and second-order motion mechanisms. Vision Research 38 (22), 3531-3539.
  112. Derrington AM, Badcock DR (1992) 2-Stage Analysis of the Motion of 2-Dimensional Patterns - What Is the 1st Stage. Vision Research 32 (4), 691-698.
  113. Derrington AM, Badcock DR, Henning GB (1993) Discriminating the Direction of 2nd-Order Motion at Short Stimulus Durations. Vision Research 33 (13), 1785-1794.
  114. Derrington AM, Badcock DR, Holroyd SA (1992) Analysis of the Motion of 2-Dimensional Patterns - Evidence for a 2nd-Order Process. Vision Research 32 (4), 699-707.
  115. Derrington AM, Felisberti F (1998) Peripheral shift reduces visual sensitivity in cat geniculate neurones. Visual Neuroscience 15 (5), 875-880.
  116. Derrington AM, Henning GB (1993) Detecting and Discriminating the Direction of Motion of Luminance and Color Gratings. Vision Research 33 (5-6), 799-811.
  117. Derrington AM, Ukkonen OI (1999) Second-order motion discrimination by feature-tracking. Vision Research 39 (8), 1465-1475.
  118. Dhingra NK, Kao YH, Sterling P, Smith RG (2003) Contrast threshold of a brisk-transient ganglion cell in vitro. Journal of Neurophysiology 89 (5): 2360-2369.
  119. Ditterich J, Mazurek ME, Shadlen MN (2003) Microstimulation of visual cortex affects the speed of perceptual decisions. Nature Neuroscience 6 (8): 891-898.
  120. Dosher BA, Liu SH, Blair N, Lu ZL (2004) The spatial window of the perceptual template and endogenous attention. Vision Research 44 (12): 1257-1271.
  121. Dougherty RF, Press WA, Wandell BA (1999) Perceived speed of colored stimuli. Neuron 24 (4), 893-899.
  122. Downing PE, Bray D, Rogers J, Childs C (2004) Bodies capture attention when nothing is expected. Cognition 93 (1): B27-B38.
  123. Drew P, Sayres R, Watanabe K, Shimojo S (2001) Pupillary response to chromatic flicker. Experimental Brain Research, 136 (2), 256-262.
  124. Dumoulin SO, Baker CL, Hess RF (2001) Centrifugal bias for second-order but not first-order motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 18 (9): 2179-2189.
  125. Dumoulin SO, Baker CL, Hess RF, Evans AC (2003) Cortical specialization for processing first- and second-order motion. Cerebral Cortex 13 (12): 1375-1385.
  126. Duncan RO, Boynton GM (2003) Cortical magnification within human primary visual cortex correlates with acuity thresholds. Neuron 38 (4): 659-671.
  127. Durgin FH, Proffitt DR (1996) Visual learning in the perception of texture: Simple and contingent aftereffects of texture density. Spatial Vision 9 (4), 423-474.
  128. Eagle RA (1997) Independent processing across spatial frequency in moving broadband patterns. Perception 26 (8), 961-976.
  129. Green ES, DeAngelis GC, Freeman RD (1996) Development of inhibitory mechanisms in the kitten's visual cortex. Visual Neuroscience 13 (6), 1109-1117.
  130. Einhauser W, Konig P (2003) Does luminance-contrast contribute to a saliency map for overt visual attention? European Journal of Neuroscience 17 (5): 1089-1097.
  131. Elder JH, Sachs AJ (2004) Psychophysical receptive fields of edge detection mechanisms. Vision Research 44 (8): 795-813.
  132. Ellemberg D, Allen HA, Hess RF (2004) Investigating local network interactions underlying first- and second-order processing. Vision Research 44 (15): 1787-1797.
  133. Farell B, Pelli DG (1993) Can We Attend to Large and Small at the Same Time. Vision Research 33 (18), 2757-2772.
  134. Felisberti F, Derrington AM (1999) Long-range interactions modulate the contrast gain in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats. Visual Neuroscience 16 (5), 943-956.
  135. Fernandez-Duque D, Thornton, IM (2000) Change detection without awareness: Do explicit reports underestimate the representation of change in the visual system? Visual Cognition 7 (1-3), 323-344.
  136. Fine I, Jacobs RA (2000) Perceptual learning for a pattern discrimination task. Vision Research 40 (23), 3209-3230.
  137. Fiser J, Aslin RN (2001) Unsupervised statistical learning of higher-order spatial structures from visual scenes. Psychological Science 12 (6): 499-504.
  138. Fiser J, Bex PJ, Makous W (2003) Contrast conservation in human vision. VISION RESEARCH, 43 (25): 2637-2648.
  139. Forte J, Peirce JW, Lennie P (2002) Binocular integration of partially occluded surfaces. Vision Research 42 (10): 1225-1235.
  140. Freeman AW, Wong EM (2003) Assessing binocular cooperation with patchwork stimuli. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 31 (4): 357-361.
  141. Freeman TCB, Durand S, Kiper DC, Carandini M (2002) Suppression without inhibition in visual cortex. Neuron 35 (4): 759-771.
  142. Friedenberg J, Bertamini M (2000) Contour symmetry detection: the influence of axis orientation and number of objects. Acta Psychologica, 105 (1), 107-118.
  143. Fujisaki W, Shimojo S, Kashino M, Nishida S (2004) Recalibration of audiovisual simultaneity. Nature Neuroscience 7 (7): 773-778.
  144. Furmanski CS, Engel SA (2000) Perceptual learning in object recognition: object specificity and size Invariance. Vision Research 40 (5): 473-484.
  145. Gilmore RO, Baker TJ, Grobman KH (2004) Stability in young infants' discrimination of optic flow. Developmental Psychology 40 (2): 259-270.
  146. Gilmore RO, Rettke HJ (2003) Four-month-olds' discrimination of optic flow patterns depicting different directions of observer motion. Infancy 4 (2): 177-200.
  147. Gitelman DR (2002) ILAB: A program for postexperimental eye movement analysis. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers 34 (4): 605-612.
  148. Gobell JL, Tseng CH, Sperling G (2004) The spatial distribution of visual attention. Vision Research 44 (12): 1273-1296.
  149. Goda N, Ejima Y (1997) Additive effect of luminance and color cues in generation of neon color spreading. Vision Research 37 (3), 291-305.
  150. Gold J, Bennett PJ, Sekuler AB (1999) Identification of band-pass filtered letters and faces by human and ideal observers. Vision Research 39 (21), 3537-3560.
  151. Gold JI, Shadlen MN (2003) The influence of behavioral context on the representation of a perceptual decision in developing oculomotor commands. Journal of Neuroscience 23 (2): 632-651.
  152. Gold JM, Sekuler AB, Bennett PJ (2004) Characterizing perceptual learning with external noise. Cognitive Science 28 (2): 167-207.
  153. Gosselin F, Schyns PG (2001) Bubbles: a technique to reveal the use of information in recognition tasks. Vision Research 41 (17): 2261-2271.
  154. Gosselin F, Schyns PG (2003) Superstitious perceptions reveal properties of internal representations. Psychological Science 14 (5): 505-509.
  155. Gosselin F, Schyns PG (2004) No troubles with bubbles: a reply to Murray and Gold. Vision Research 44 (5): 471-477.
  156. Goto M, Toriu T, Tanahashi J (2001) Effect of size of attended area on contrast sensitivity function. Vision Research 41 (12), 1483-1487.
  157. Graham N, Wolfson SS (2001) A note about preferred orientations at the first and second stages of complex (second-order) texture channels. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 18 (9): 2273-2281.
  158. Green ES, DeAngelis GC, Freeman RD (1996) Development of inhibitory mechanisms in the kitten's visual cortex. Visual Neuroscience 13 (6), 1109-1117.
  159. Grossman ED, Blake R (2002) Brain areas active during visual perception of biological motion. Neuron 35 (6): 1167-1175.
  160. Grove PM, Ono H, Kaneko H (2003) T-junctions and perceived slant of partially occluded surfaces. Perception 32 (12): 1451-1464.
  161. Harley EM, Dillon AM, Loftus GR (2004) Why is it difficult to see in the fog? How stimulus contrast affects visual perception and visual memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 11 (2): 197-231.
  162. Harley EM, Loftus GR (2000) MATLAB and graphical user interfaces: Tools for experimental management. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers 32 (2): 290-296.
  163. Henning GB, Miller RW, Hill NJ (2000) Detection of incremental and decremental bars at different locations across Mach bands and related stimuli. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 17 (7), 1147-1159.
  164. Hess RF, Achtman RL, Wang YZ (2001) Detection of contrast-defined shape. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 18 (9): 2220-2227.
  165. Hess RF, Barnes G, Dumoulin SO, Dakin SC (2003) How many positions can we perceptually encode, one or many? Vision Research 43 (14): 1575-1587.
  166. Hess RF, Dakin SC, Kapoor N (2000) The foveal 'crowding' effect: physics or physiology?. Vision Research 40 (4): 365-370.
  167. Hess RF, Dakin SC, Kapoor N, Tewfik M (2000) Contour interaction in fovea and periphery. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 17 (9): 1516-1524.
  168. Hess RF, Dakin SC, Tewfik M, Brown B (2001) Contour interaction in amblyopia: scale selection. Vision Research 41 (17): 2285-2296.
  169. Hess RF, Demanins R, Bex PJ (1997) A reduced motion aftereffect in strabismic amblyopia. Vision Research 37 (10), 1303-1311.
  170. Hess RF, Field DJ (1994) Is the Spatial Deficit in Strabismic Amblyopia Due to Loss of Cells or an Uncalibrated Disarray of Cells. Vision Research 34 (24), 3397-3406.
  171. Hess RF, Liu CH, Wang YZ (2002) Luminance spatial scale and local stereo-sensitivity. Vision Research 42 (3): 331-342.
  172. Hess RF, Liu CH, Wang YZ (2003) Differential binocular input and local stereopsis. Vision Research 43 (22): 2303-2313.
  173. Hess RF, Wang YZ, Dakin SC (1999) Are judgements of circularity local or global? Vision Research 39 (26), 4354-4360.
  174. Hess RF, Wang YZ, Demanins R, Wilkinson F, Wilson HR (1999) A deficit in strabismic amblyopia for global shape detection. Vision Research 39 (5), 901-914.
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Please! Don't thank us. Cite us.

If you want to acknowledge use of this software when you publish your research, you might say something like this,

"We wrote our experiments in Matlab, using the Psychophysics Toolbox extensions (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997)."

Brainard, D. H. (1997) The Psychophysics Toolbox, Spatial Vision 10:433-436. [PDF]
Pelli, D. G. (1997) The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: Transforming numbers into movies, Spatial Vision 10:437-442. [HTML][PDF]

There have been nearly two hundred citations of the original VideoToolbox article, below (thanks!), but we suggest the above for current users of the Psychtoolbox and VideoToolbox software, since the efforts have merged.

Pelli, D. G., and Zhang, L. (1991). Accurate control of contrast on microcomputer displays. Vision Research 31, 1337-1350. [PDF]

We're happy and grateful to find that more and more users are now citing their use of this software. Getting this credit helps us justify the time we continue to devote to developing and maintaining this free software for use by the entire vision community. We note that some users of the Psychophysics Toolbox have been citing only Brainard and not Pelli, presumably because these users aren't aware that they are using the VideoToolbox. However, as our changes pages document (Mac, Win), our enhancements and debugging of the Psychophysics Toolbox are roughly evenly split between changes at both levels of software. Mentioning the VideoToolbox by name isn't important, so we've dropped it from the suggested citation, above, but citing the active contributions of both authors is important, as we both want credit for our contributions to your research.


David Brainard and Denis Pelli

Updated